Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Total Cold War and the diffusion of power, —72 The concomitant arrival of the missile age and of an independent and restive Third World multiplied the senses in which politics had become global. Intercontinental rockets not only meant that the most destructive weapons known could now be propelled halfway around the world in minutes but also, because of the imminent nuclear standoff they heralded, that a Cold War competition would now extend into other realms—science and technology, economic growthsocial welfare, race relations, image making—in which the Soviets or Americans could try to prove that their system was the best.
This became the springboard for political unrest centred on the Shandong Settlement. Map of Shandong province showing the areas annexed by Germany and Britain prior to the Versailles Treaty To many British people 'Shandong' Shantung is synonymous with a silken fabric associated with that province.
But to many Chinese no doubt the word arouses feelings similar to those which 'Munich' provokes in this country. Obviously there are marked differences between the Shandong settlement of and the Munich agreement with Hitler ofbut there are a sufficient number of common factors to justify comparison.
Both settlements were concluded against the wishes of the countries most affected, China and Czechoslovakia respectively. Neither settlement proved permanent, nor were they things about which the majority of British people could feel proud.
The Munich agreement is within the living memory of many people and it still features in political debate. However, the Shandong settlement is twenty years older. As the issues are less well known it might be helpful to recall the main points.
Imperial rivalries During the 19th century, Britain had acquired extensive trading areas and extraterritorial rights in China. But towards the end of the century other powers, especially Russia and Japan, became more ambitious. In Germany acquired various concessions in Shandong province which included the port of Qingdao Tsingtao and railway rights into the province.
Britain welcomed Germany's move as a counter measure against Russia, and at the same time extended its Chinese possessions by annexing the nearby port of Weihaiwei. Not surprisingly the war of upset diplomatic manoeuvrings in the Far East.
Russia was now an ally, and the German occupation of Shandong was a potential menace. Yet it was with misgivings that Britain witnessed Japan's almost immediate declaration of war upon Germany and its attack on Shandong, which fell to Japanese forces in November Britain's misgivings regarding Japan's intentions in China were quickly justified, for in Japan imposed its notorious 21 Demands upon a weak Chinese government.
These insisted on the transfer of former German rights in Shandong to Japan.
Peace conference At the Paris Peace Conference in the allied powers had a tangled skein to unravel concerning the Far East. Britain's promises to China in to restore Shandong to it when Germany was defeated The demands of Japan, and whether or not Japan's war-time treaties with China were of a voluntary character Britain's promises to Japan in to support its case at the Peace Conference The lack of an effective Chinese government China's declaration of war on Germany in and its claim to be treated as one of the victorious allies The insistence of US President Wilson on a peace settlement in accord with his ideals.
With such conflict of interests prevailing it was clear that the weakest would go to the wall. Naturally the British government discussed its objectives before the conference began.
There was an idea to encourage Japan to be conciliatory over Shandong by itself making marginal concessions, for example, by handing back Weihaiwei which Britain had never developed. This was firmly rejected, and a British policy of 'what we have we hold' was adopted. Considerable space would be required to give an account of China's case at the Peace Conference, but it is fair to say that the treatment of the Chinese delegates was shabby.
More importantly, the settlement which was reached proved to be only a temporary solution but one with long-lasting harmful effects. The Welsh wizard At the conference the Chinese were quick to recognise a dubious practice of the British prime minister. The secretary to the Chinese delegation, Wunsz King, claimed that, 'Lloyd George was well known for his skill and audacity in participating in the discussion of a subject without knowing exactly what it was all about'.
Lloyd George was heavily involved in European problems but he did not let his lack of detailed knowledge of Shandong prevent him from expediting matters.
With scant regard for long term effects, he persuaded the conference to agree to the transfer of former German rights to Japan, who had promised to restore them to China.
Consequently articles were included in the Treaty of Versailles. The Chinese delegation was not invited to the inner Council of Three when the main Powers basically decided the issue. It was kept waiting several weeks before it was told officially what had been agreed.
Displeased with its terms, the Chinese delegation surprised the conference by refusing to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The May Fourth Movement News of the Shandong settlement had leaked out and created a movement which gave impetus to Chinese nationalism. Beginning on 4 May people took to the streets in their thousands and hostility to Japan and Britain was expressed forcibly by students.
Boycotts of Japanese and British goods became common. It would be unwise to over-estimate the effects which the May Fourth Movement had upon China's internal development, its foreign relations, and the belated change of Britain's policy towards China in the mid's. But there can be no doubt that it was a strong influence upon the Nationalist Party Guomindang and the forces contending for power within China.In dentistry: Dentistry in 19th-century Europe.
In English dentist Sir John Tomes led the formation of the first dental organization in England, the Odontological Society. It was through the activity of this group that the Royal Dental Hospital of London was established in "Misunderstandings and neglect occasion more mischief in the world than even malice and wickedness.
At all events, the two latter are of less frequent occurrence." Note that the phenomenon of Trolling, in all its forms, specifically contradicts this law (though trolling by design does adhere to Grey.
March 7th significant news events for this day include Germany Violates Treaty of Versailles, Alabama Civil Rights March Takes Place, Golda Meir Elected Israeli Prime Minister, Rahman Becomes First Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Charlie Sheen Gets Fired.
The Treaty of Versailles, signed with Germany in a suburb of Paris and ending the First World War, was not what Wilson expected, with its war guilt clause and reparations. Muffins English muffins, crumpets, scones & bannock American muffins Blueberry muffins.
Researching the history of bread-related products is difficult because bread is THE universal food. In an article from the China Now magazine (), Peter Richards reveals the origins and repercussions of an unfair deal for China in the aftermath of the first World War.