Among the five countries in terms of mobile penetration in South Asia, Pakistan is placed at number three followed by Sri Lanka and Bhutan. Iran and Maldives are ranked above Pakistan. The TV ad revenue is continuing to rise as a percentage of total ad revenue, mostly at the expense of the print media ads. The biggest spenders in were the telecom companies with Rs 8 billion, followed closely by fast moving consumer goods FMCG sector with Rs.
InKonrad von Moltke described the German concept for a British audience, which he translated into English as the precautionary principle.
For example, the essence of the principle is captured in a number of cautionary aphorisms such as "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure", "better safe than sorry", and "look before you leap". The precautionary principle may also be interpreted as the evolution of the "ancient-medical principle" of " first, do no harm " to apply to institutions and institutional decision-making processes rather than individuals.
Authors such as Epstein  and Arrow and Fischer  show that "irreversibility of possible future consequences" creates a "quasi- option effect" which should induce a " risk -neutral" society to favour current decisions that allow for more flexibility in the future.
Formulations[ edit ] Many definitions of the precautionary principle exist: Precaution may be defined as "caution in advance", "caution practised in the context of uncertainty", or informed prudence. Two ideas lie at the core of the principle: Within this element lies an implicit reversal of the onus of proof: The principle 15 of the Rio Declaration notes: Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
But in practice, Technological factors of nokia scope is much wider, and specifically where preliminary-objective-scientific-evaluation indicates that there are reasonable grounds for concern that potentially dangerous effects on the environment, human, animal or [and] plant health may be inconsistent with the high level of protection [for what] chosen for the Community.
One study identified 14 different formulations of the principle in treaties and nontreaty declarations. Stewart  reduced the precautionary principle to four basic versions: Scientific uncertainty should not automatically preclude regulation of activities that pose a potential risk of significant harm Non-Preclusion PP.
Regulatory controls should incorporate a margin of safety; activities should be limited below the level at which no adverse effect has been observed or predicted Margin of Safety PP.
Activities that present an uncertain potential for significant harm should be subject to best technology available requirements to minimise the risk of harm unless the proponent of the activity shows that they present no appreciable risk of harm BAT PP.
Activities that present an uncertain potential for significant harm should be prohibited unless the proponent of the activity shows that it presents no appreciable risk of harm Prohibitory PP. In deciding how to apply the principle, one may use a cost-benefit analysis that factors in both the opportunity cost of not acting, and the option value of waiting for further information before acting.
The widely publicised Wingspread Declaration, from a meeting of environmentalists inis another example of the strong version. To satisfy the threshold of harm, there must be some evidence relating to both the likelihood of occurrence and the severity of consequences.
Some, but not all, require consideration of the costs of precautionary measures. Weak formulations do not preclude weighing benefits against the costs.
Factors other than scientific uncertainty, including economic considerations, may provide legitimate grounds for postponing action. Under weak formulations, the requirement to justify the need for action the burden of proof generally falls on those advocating precautionary action. No mention is made of assignment of liability for environmental harm.
Strong versions justify or require precautionary measures and some also establish liability for environmental harm, which is effectively a strong form of "polluter pays". For example, the Earth Charter states: Place the burden of proof on those who argue that a proposed activity will not cause significant harm, and make the responsible parties liable for environmental harm.
Requiring proof of "no environmental harm" before any action proceeds implies the public is not prepared to accept any environmental risk, no matter what economic or social benefits may arise Peterson, At the extreme, such a requirement could involve bans and prohibitions on entire classes of potentially threatening activities or substances Cooney, Over time, there has been a gradual transformation of the precautionary principle from what appears in the Rio Declaration to a stronger form that arguably [by whom] acts as restraint on development in the absence of firm evidence that it will do no harm.
The principle was implemented in an international treaty as early as the Montreal Protocoland among other international treaties and declarations is reflected in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development signed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.
Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration states that: Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall be not used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
This means that it is compulsory, so a court can quash or confirm a decision through the application of the precautionary principle.
In this sense, the precautionary principle is not a simple idea or a desideratum but a source of law. This is the legal status of the precautionary principle in the European Union.
On the other hand, an 'approach' usually does not have the same meaning, although in some particular cases an approach could be binding.
A precautionary approach is a particular 'lens' used to identify risk that every prudent person possesses Recuerda,  European Union[ edit ] On 2 Februarythe European Commission issued a Communication on the precautionary principle,  in which it adopted a procedure for the application of this concept, but without giving a detailed definition of it.
Paragraph 2 of article of the Lisbon Treaty states that "Union policy on the environment shall aim at a high level of protection taking into account the diversity of situations in the various regions of the Union.The first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Frank Canova in while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show.
A refined version was marketed to consumers in by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Nokia Corporation is a Finish communications based company which concentrates on mobile telephone technology.
It focused on the key growth areas of wire line and wireless telecommunications. 5 Key Barriers to Educational Technology Adoption in the Developing World. Clayton R. Wright. Educational technology will continue to be implemented incrementally in .
This FREE eBook explains the technological factors considered in a PESTLE analysis - download it now for your PC, laptop, tablet, Kindle or Smartphone. Supply Of Supply Chain Management - This video shows how Walmart, the multinational retail giant, manages its storage and supply of products and how it has gained great benefits by adopting and implementing an efficient supply chain strategy.
Examples of Artificial Intelligence 1.
Smartphones. If you are reading this article, you most probably own a smartphone. Heck, if I have to make a guess, I would say that most of you guys are reading this article on a smartphone.