A literature review of the issues of involuntary commitment, mental health recovery, and peer support, including the established values and ethics of these initiatives; a historical perspective of past and current recovery efforts in Vermont; and related mental health programs. Development of a proposal for the State of Vermont to fund a study Moving Ahead Project to determine those mental health recovery and peer support initiatives that might be helpful to people who have repeated involuntary mental health commitments. Explanation of the implementation of the study, including descriptions of the interview process, focus groups, and working with advisory boards. A description of the data analysis process, an overview of the findings, and the process of using the data as the basis for developing the Community Links program.
Introduction To many, leaders are not born, but made. It is increasingly accepted, however, that in order to be a good leader, one must have the experience, knowledge, commitment, patience, and most importantly the skill to negotiate and work with others to achieve goals.
Good leaders are thus made, not born. He stated that the basis of a good leadership is strong character and selfless devotion to an organization Jenkins, From the perspective of employees, leadership is comprised of everything a leader does that affects the achievement of objectives and the well-being of employees and the organization Abbasialiya, Leadership involves a type of responsibility aimed at achieving particular ends by applying the available resources human and material and ensuring a cohesive and coherent organization in the process Ololube, Northouse and Rowe described leadership as a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
This article contends that effective leadership is crucial to the proper operation and very survival of a non-profit organization. Leadership is arguably one of the most observed, yet least understood phenomena on earth Burns, in Abbasialiya, Over time, researchers have proposed many different styles of leadership as there is no particular style of leadership that can be considered universal.
Despite the many diverse styles of leadership, a good or effective leader inspires, motivates, and directs activities to help achieve group or organizational goals. Conversely, an ineffective leader does not contribute to organizational progress and can, in fact, detract from organizational goal accomplishment.
According to Nayloreffective leadership is a product of the heart and an effective leader must be visionary, passionate, creative, flexible, inspiring, innovative, courageous, imaginative, experimental, and initiates change see figure 1.
Qualities of the leader and the manager This study was enthused by the premise that no nation grows further than the quality of its educational leaders and or educational managers. In this theoretical debate, the authors presented a moderately detail analysis of a theoretical research conducted on the need for African countries especially Nigeria to reform.
This debate focus not simply on what educational leadership is, but the impact it has on school management, teachers and students and the part it plays in meeting the challenges facing education institutions. The overall purpose of this theoretical debate is to examine the wider context in which leadership is made on effectiveness and improved school management.
Theories of Leadership There are as many different views of leadership as there are characteristic that distinguish leaders from non-leaders. In the more dominant theories of leadership, there exists the notion that, at least to some degree, leadership is a process that involves influence with a group of people toward the realization of goals Wolinski, Charrynoting that scholarly interest in leadership increased significantly during the early part of the twentieth century, identified eight major leadership theories.
While the earlier of these focused on the qualities that distinguish leaders from followers, later theories looked at other variables including situational factors and skill levels.
These theories often portray leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term great man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially military leadership See also, Ololube, Trait Theory Similar in some ways to great man theories, the trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities or traits make them better suited to leadership.
Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioural characteristics that are shared by leaders. Many have begun to ask of this theory, however, if particular traits are key features of leaders and leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?
Inconsistencies in the relationship between leadership traits and leadership effectiveness eventually led scholars to shift paradigms in search of new explanations for effective leadership. Contingency Theories Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which style of leadership is best suited for a particular work situation.
According to this theory, no single leadership style is appropriate in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including leadership style, qualities of followers and situational features Charry, A contingency factor is thus any condition in any relevant environment to be considered when designing an organization or one of its elements Naylor, Situational Theory Situational theory proposes that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational conditions or circumstances.
Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for different types of decision-making. For example, in a situation where the leader is expected to be the most knowledgeable and experienced member of a group, an authoritarian style of leadership might be most appropriate.
In other instances where group members are skilled experts and expect to be treated as such, a democratic style may be more effective. Behavioural Theory Behavioural theories of leadership are based on the belief that great leaders are made, not born. This leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on intellectual qualities or internal states.
According to the behavioural theory, people can learn to become leaders through training and observation. Naylor notes that interest in the behaviour of leaders has been stimulated by a systematic comparison of autocratic and democratic leadership styles.
It has been observed that groups under these types of leadership perform differently:People with hearing loss can dream of a future when hearing aids might also serve as wireless loudspeakers, delivering clear, customized sound from inside their ears.
Another Potential Reason Why Climate Sensitivity is Over-Estimated June 2nd, by Roy W. Spencer, Ph.
D. The role of language in education "Miss Kelly said that when you talk to somebody it's like you're playing ball. First the somebody asks you a question, and that means they throw the ball to you. Postmaterialism: Postmaterialism, value orientation that emphasizes self-expression and quality of life over economic and physical security.
The term postmaterialism was first coined by American social scientist Ronald Inglehart in The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics. by Nic Lewis Recently a new model-based paper on climate sensitivity was published by Kate Marvel, Gavin Schmidt and others, titled 'Internal variability and disequilibrium confound estimates of climate sensitivity from observations'. As some readers may recall, I found six errors in a well-publicised paper by Kate Marvel and other .
This paper addresses two questions through a study of SMEs located in contrasting industry and home country contexts. First, which business models for international markets prevail among SMEs and do they configure into different types?