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Origin The date of the foundation of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel has been under discussion from the fourteenth century to the present day, the order claiming for its Apa style unpublished masters thesis the prophets Elias and Eliseus, whereas modern historians, beginning with Baroniusdeny its existence previous to the second half of the twelfth century.
As early as the times of the Prophet Samuel there existed in the Holy Land a body of men called Sons of the Prophets, who in many respects resembled religious institutes of later times.
They led a kind of community life, and, though not belonging to the Tribe of Levi, dedicated themselves to the service of God ; above all they owed obedience to certain superiors, the most famous of whom were Elias and his successor Eliseus, both connected with Carmel, the former by his encounter with the prophets of Baalthe latter by prolonged residence on the holy mountain.
With the downfall of the Kingdom of Israel the Sons of the Prophets disappear from history. In the third or fourth century of the Christian Era Carmel was a place of pilgrimageas is proved by numerous Greek inscriptions on the walls of the School of the Prophets: Several of the Fathers, notably John Chrystostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzenand Jeromerepresent Elias and Eliseus as the models of religious perfection and the patrons of hermits and monks.
These undeniable facts have opened the way to certain conjectures. John the Baptist spent nearly the whole of his life in the desertwhere he gathered around him a number of disciples, and as Christ said he was endowed with the spirit and virtue of Elias, some authors think that he revived the institute of the Sons of the Prophets.
The glowing descriptions given by Pliny, Flavius Josephusand Philoof the manner of life of the Essenes and Therapeutes convinced others that these sects belonged to the same corporation; unfortunately their orthodoxy is open to serious doubts.
Tacitus mentions a sanctuary on Carmel, consisting "neither of a temple, nor an idol, but merely an altar for Divine worship"; whatever its origin may have been, it certainly was at the time of Vespasian in the hands of a pagan priestBasilides.
Elias on the slopes of a certain mountain. This evidence is, however, inadmissible, inasmuch as Eusebius is witness to the fact that she built only two churches in the Holy Land, at Bethlehem and at Jerusalemnot twenty, as Nicephorus says; moreover the words of this author show clearly that he had in view the Greek monastery of Mar Elias, overhanging the Jordan valley, and not Carmel as some authors think; Mar Elias, however, belongs to the sixth century.
These and other misunderstood quotations have enfeebled rather than strengthened the tradition of the order, which holds that from the days of the great Prophets there has been, if not an uninterrupted, at least a moral succession of hermits on Carmel, first under the Old Dispensationafterwards in the full light of Christianityuntil at the time of the Crusades these hermits became organized after the fashion of the Western orders.
This tradition is officially laid down in the constitutions of the order, is mentioned in many papal Bullsas well as in the Liturgy of the Churchand is still held by many members of the order. The silence of Palestine pilgrims previous to A.
Even the evidence of the order itself was not always very explicit. A notice written between and Mon. The General Chapter of unedited speaks of the order as of a plantation of recent growth plantatio novella. More definite are some writings of about the same time. A letter "On the progress of his Order" ascribed to St.
Cyril of Constantinoplebut written by a Latin probably French author about the yearand the book "On the Institution of the First Monks" connect the order with the Prophets of the Old Law.
This latter work, mentioned for the first time inwas published in and became known in England half a century later. It purports to be written by John, the forty-fourth more accurately the forty-second Bishop of Jerusalem A.
However, as Gennadius and other ancient bibliographers do not mention it among the writings of John, and as the author was clearly a Latin, since his entire argument is based upon certain texts of the Vulgate differing widely from the corresponding passages of the Septuagintand as he in many ways proves his entire ignorance of the Greek language, and, moreover, quotes or alludes to writers of the twelfth century, he cannot have lived earlier than the middle of the thirteenth.
A third author is sometimes mentioned, Joseph, a Deacon of Antioch, whom Possevin assigns to about A. His name is not mentioned before the fourteenth century and in all probability he did not live much earlier.
The tradition of the order, while admitted by many of the medieval Schoolmenwas contested by not a few authors. Hence the Carmelite historians neglected almost completely the history of their own times, spending all their energy on controversial writings, as is evident in the works of John BaconthorpeJohn of Chimeneto, John of HildesheimBernard Olerius, and many others.
In a disputation was held before the University of Cambridge between the Dominican John Stokes and the Carmelite John of Horneby; the latter, whose arguments were chiefly taken from canon law, not from history, was declared victorious and the members of the university were forbidden to question the antiquity of the Carmelite Order.
He, too, approved with certain reservations the legend of the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 16 July, which had been instituted between and in commemoration of the approbation of the rule by Honorius III ; it now became the "Scapular feast ", was declared the principal feast of the order, and was extended to the whole Church in The tendency of claiming for the order saints and other renowned persons of Christian and even classical antiquity came to a climax in the "Paradisus Carmelitici decoris" by M.
Alegre de Casanate, published incondemned by the Sorbonne inand placed on the Roman Index in Much that is uncritical may also be found in the annals of the order by J. On the publication, inof the third volume of March of the Bollandistsin which Daniel Papebroch asserted that the Carmelite Order was founded in by St.Sources.
A considerable portion of this article being based on unpublished material, the following notices are necessarily incomplete, and to a large extent antiquated. This reference list was compiled by Robert Hare for personal use. Most, but not all, of the articles listed on these pages discuss or evaluate the PCL-R, the PCL:SV, the PCL:YV, and other Hare plombier-nemours.com to available abstracts, and when available, links to the full text on the Journal web sites are provided (search for [full text] on the page below).
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. For more specific information, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition) or see the APA style website.
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