Investing in Inclusive Innovation Ecosystems".
Introduction Zambia derives its name from the Zambezi River. The river runs across the western and southern border and then forms Victoria Falls and flows into Lake Kariba and on to the Indian Ocean.
It is a landlocked country with several large freshwater lakes, including Lake Tanganyika, Lake Mweru, Lake Bangweulu, and the largest man-made lake in Africa, Lake Kariba. The terrain consists of high plateaus, large savannas, and hilly areas; the highest altitude is in the Muchinga Mountains, at 6, feet 1, meters.
Zambia lies between the Democratic Republic of Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The country measures approximatelysquare kilometres with a population of approximately 11 Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups.
The population is comprised primarily 97 percent of seven main tribes and a collection of seventy-five minor tribes. There is also a small percentage of citizens from other African nations.
The remaining population is of Asian, Indian, and European descent. Because of conflicts in the border countries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola, there has been a large influx of refugees in recent years.
Most Zambians are subsistence farmers. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity; Christianity is the official national Analysis of the dots programme in nigeria.
Expatriates, a majority of whom are British about 15, and South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copper belt in northern Zambia, where they are employed in mines and related activities.
Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2, years ago.
The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola but were joined in the 19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south.
By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy. Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the midth century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders.
David Livingstone, inwas the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him. InCecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained mineral rights concession from local chiefs.
In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government inand the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in as a protectorate.
Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years.
At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control. A two-stage election held in October and December of resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties.
The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. On December 31,the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges.
Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise.
Abroad, three of its neighbors--Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola--remained under white-dominated rule.
Rhodesia's white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia.
Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity.
A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar-es-Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola.
By the late s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's problems were not solved.
Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late s. In the mids, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide.Location of Eritrea (dark blue) – in Africa (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union (light blue).
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Send questions or comments to doi. Although the burden is greatest in low-income populations with poor access to safe water, sanitation, and urgent medical care, acute infectious diarrhoea is also a common cause of outpatient visits and hospital admissions in high-income regions and is an important health problem globally.
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